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        2. react怎么發送axios請求-環球新動態

          來源:php中文網 | 2022-12-29 09:59:37 |

          本教程操作環境:Windows10系統、react18.0.0版、Dell G3電腦。

          react怎么發送axios請求?

          React中使用axios發送請求的常用方法


          【資料圖】

          React中安裝并引入axios依賴

          在React項目中使用axios請求,首先需要安裝axios:

          npm install axios --save

          然后在react文件中使用typescript方式導入axios依賴:

          import axios from "axios";

          使用axios進行GET請求

          axios中使用GET請求時有兩中方式:

          一種是使用axios.get的方式進行

          一種是使用axios(config { ... })的方式進行

          使用axios.get方式

          使用封裝的axios.get進行請求的常用格式如下:

          // Make a request for a user with a given IDaxios.get("/getUser?id=12345")  .then(function (response) {    // handle success    console.log(response);     // update state or do something    this.setState({      // ...    })  })  .catch(function (error) {    // handle error    console.log(error);  })  .then(function () {    // always executed  }); // Optionally the request above could also be done asaxios.get("/getUser", {    params: { // 這里的參數設置為URL參數(根據URL攜帶參數)      id: 12345    }  })  .then(function (response) {    console.log(response);  })  .catch(function (error) {    console.log(error);  })  .then(function () {    // always executed  });   // Want to use async/await? Add the `async` keyword to your outer function/method.async function getUser() {  try {    const response = await axios.get("/getUser?id=12345");    console.log(response);  } catch (error) {    console.error(error);  }}

          使用axios(config {...})

          使用axios(config {...}) 的方式發送GET請求格式如下:

          axios({  method: "get",  url: "/getUser",  params: {    id: 12345,  }})  .then(function (response) {    console.log(response);  });

          以上的get請求發送的URL均為如下:

          http:HOST_IP:XXXX/getUser?id=12345

          使用axios進行POST請求

          同GET請求一樣,使用POST也有兩種請求方式。

          使用axios.post

          axios.post("/createUser", {    firstName: "Fred",    lastName: "Flintstone"  })  .then(function (response) {    console.log(response);  })  .catch(function (error) {    console.log(error);  });

          使用axios(config {...})

          // Send a POST request    axios({      method: "post",      url: "/createUser",      data: { // 這里data中的參數為requestBody參數,服務端需要使用@RequestBody注解進行獲取        firstName: "Fred",        lastName: "Flintstone"      }    }).then(function (response) {      console.log(response);    }).catch(function (error) {      console.log(error);    });

          需要注意的是,在使用axios(config {})方式進行GET或POST請求發送時,GET請求中params為URL參數,POST請求中data為RequestBody參數,在服務端需要使用@RequestBody注解接收,Spring Boot能夠自動解析為Java相應的對象。

          同時發送多個請求

          使用axios也可以一次發送多個請求:

          function getUserAccount() {  return axios.get("/user/12345");} function getUserPermissions() {  return axios.get("/user/12345/permissions");} axios.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()])  .then(axios.spread(function (acct, perms) {    // Both requests are now complete  }));

          詳細config對象配置項

          在axios的readme文檔中,有對config對象的具體配置說明,如下:

          {  // `url` is the server URL that will be used for the request  url: "/user",   // `method` is the request method to be used when making the request  method: "get", // default   // `baseURL` will be prepended to `url` unless `url` is absolute.  // It can be convenient to set `baseURL` for an instance of axios to pass relative URLs  // to methods of that instance.  baseURL: "https://some-domain.com/api/",   // `transformRequest` allows changes to the request data before it is sent to the server  // This is only applicable for request methods "PUT", "POST", "PATCH" and "DELETE"  // The last function in the array must return a string or an instance of Buffer, ArrayBuffer,  // FormData or Stream  // You may modify the headers object.  transformRequest: [function (data, headers) {    // Do whatever you want to transform the data     return data;  }],   // `transformResponse` allows changes to the response data to be made before  // it is passed to then/catch  transformResponse: [function (data) {    // Do whatever you want to transform the data     return data;  }],   // `headers` are custom headers to be sent  headers: {"X-Requested-With": "XMLHttpRequest"},   // `params` are the URL parameters to be sent with the request  // Must be a plain object or a URLSearchParams object  params: {    ID: 12345  },   // `paramsSerializer` is an optional function in charge of serializing `params`  // (e.g. https://www.npmjs.com/package/qs, http://api.jquery.com/jquery.param/)  paramsSerializer: function (params) {    return Qs.stringify(params, {arrayFormat: "brackets"})  },   // `data` is the data to be sent as the request body  // Only applicable for request methods "PUT", "POST", and "PATCH"  // When no `transformRequest` is set, must be of one of the following types:  // - string, plain object, ArrayBuffer, ArrayBufferView, URLSearchParams  // - Browser only: FormData, File, Blob  // - Node only: Stream, Buffer  data: {    firstName: "Fred"  },    // syntax alternative to send data into the body  // method post  // only the value is sent, not the key  data: "Country=Brasil&City=Belo Horizonte",   // `timeout` specifies the number of milliseconds before the request times out.  // If the request takes longer than `timeout`, the request will be aborted.  timeout: 1000, // default is `0` (no timeout)   // `withCredentials` indicates whether or not cross-site Access-Control requests  // should be made using credentials  withCredentials: false, // default   // `adapter` allows custom handling of requests which makes testing easier.  // Return a promise and supply a valid response (see lib/adapters/README.md).  adapter: function (config) {    /* ... */  },   // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used, and supplies credentials.  // This will set an `Authorization` header, overwriting any existing  // `Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`.  // Please note that only HTTP Basic auth is configurable through this parameter.  // For Bearer tokens and such, use `Authorization` custom headers instead.  auth: {    username: "janedoe",    password: "s00pers3cret"  },   // `responseType` indicates the type of data that the server will respond with  // options are: "arraybuffer", "document", "json", "text", "stream"  //   browser only: "blob"  responseType: "json", // default   // `responseEncoding` indicates encoding to use for decoding responses  // Note: Ignored for `responseType` of "stream" or client-side requests  responseEncoding: "utf8", // default   // `xsrfCookieName` is the name of the cookie to use as a value for xsrf token  xsrfCookieName: "XSRF-TOKEN", // default   // `xsrfHeaderName` is the name of the http header that carries the xsrf token value  xsrfHeaderName: "X-XSRF-TOKEN", // default   // `onUploadProgress` allows handling of progress events for uploads  // browser only  onUploadProgress: function (progressEvent) {    // Do whatever you want with the native progress event  },   // `onDownloadProgress` allows handling of progress events for downloads  // browser only  onDownloadProgress: function (progressEvent) {    // Do whatever you want with the native progress event  },   // `maxContentLength` defines the max size of the http response content in bytes allowed  maxContentLength: 2000,   // `validateStatus` defines whether to resolve or reject the promise for a given  // HTTP response status code. If `validateStatus` returns `true` (or is set to `null`  // or `undefined`), the promise will be resolved; otherwise, the promise will be  // rejected.  validateStatus: function (status) {    return status >= 200 && status < 300; // default  },   // `maxRedirects` defines the maximum number of redirects to follow in node.js.  // If set to 0, no redirects will be followed.  maxRedirects: 5, // default   // `socketPath` defines a UNIX Socket to be used in node.js.  // e.g. "/var/run/docker.sock" to send requests to the docker daemon.  // Only either `socketPath` or `proxy` can be specified.  // If both are specified, `socketPath` is used.  socketPath: null, // default   // `httpAgent` and `httpsAgent` define a custom agent to be used when performing http  // and https requests, respectively, in node.js. This allows options to be added like  // `keepAlive` that are not enabled by default.  httpAgent: new http.Agent({ keepAlive: true }),  httpsAgent: new https.Agent({ keepAlive: true }),   // `proxy` defines the hostname and port of the proxy server.  // You can also define your proxy using the conventional `http_proxy` and  // `https_proxy` environment variables. If you are using environment variables  // for your proxy configuration, you can also define a `no_proxy` environment  // variable as a comma-separated list of domains that should not be proxied.  // Use `false` to disable proxies, ignoring environment variables.  // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used to connect to the proxy, and  // supplies credentials.  // This will set an `Proxy-Authorization` header, overwriting any existing  // `Proxy-Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`.  proxy: {    host: "127.0.0.1",    port: 9000,    auth: {      username: "mikeymike",      password: "rapunz3l"    }  },   // `cancelToken` specifies a cancel token that can be used to cancel the request  // (see Cancellation section below for details)  cancelToken: new CancelToken(function (cancel) {  })}

          axios的返回值對象response

          axios在進行請求后得到的response對象格式如下:

          {  // `data` is the response that was provided by the server  data: {},   // `status` is the HTTP status code from the server response  status: 200,   // `statusText` is the HTTP status message from the server response  statusText: "OK",   // `headers` the HTTP headers that the server responded with  // All header names are lower cased and can be accessed using the bracket notation.  // Example: `response.headers["content-type"]`  headers: {},   // `config` is the config that was provided to `axios` for the request  config: {},   // `request` is the request that generated this response  // It is the last ClientRequest instance in node.js (in redirects)  // and an XMLHttpRequest instance in the browser  request: {}}

          當在請求后使用then方法時,可以獲取response對象的各個屬性值,其中data即為服務端返回的相應對象:

          axios.get("/user/12345")  .then(function (response) {    console.log(response.data);    console.log(response.status);    console.log(response.statusText);    console.log(response.headers);    console.log(response.config);  });

          axios的全局配置

          在使用axios時,可以對axios對象進行全局的設置,該設置會應用于axios所在當前javascript類中的所有axios請求中,例如如下的設置:

          axios.defaults.baseURL = "https://api.example.com";axios.defaults.headers.common["Authorization"] = AUTH_TOKEN;axios.defaults.headers.post["Content-Type"] = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";

          axios的單一實例化配置

          如果不需對axios進行全局設置,則可以在使用某個axios對象時,進行單一對象的設置,例如如下:

          // Set config defaults when creating the instanceconst instance = axios.create({  baseURL: "https://api.example.com"}); // Alter defaults after instance has been createdinstance.defaults.headers.common["Authorization"] = AUTH_TOKEN;

          axios攔截器的使用

          可以使用axios攔截器來在發送請求之前或在響應response之前(then方法)來攔截請求并進行自定義的設置,定義request和response攔截器示例如下:

          // Add a request interceptoraxios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) {    // Do something before request is sent    return config;  }, function (error) {    // Do something with request error    return Promise.reject(error);  }); // Add a response interceptoraxios.interceptors.response.use(function (response) {    // Any status code that lie within the range of 2xx cause this function to trigger    // Do something with response data    return response;  }, function (error) {    // Any status codes that falls outside the range of 2xx cause this function to trigger    // Do something with response error    return Promise.reject(error);  });

          當需要刪除攔截器時,進行如下操作:

          const myInterceptor = axios.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});axios.interceptors.request.eject(myInterceptor);

          也可以將定義的攔截器添加到自定義的axios實例中:

          const instance = axios.create();instance.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});

          以上部分資料參考自axios文檔,具體參見:https://github.com/axios/axios

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